We often add "ing" to the end of a word. We do this when forming a continuous verb tense or when forming gerunds. "Gerund" is just a fancy word for a noun formed from a verb.

Spelling Rules for ING words

To understand these rules look at the last 3 letters of the base verb.

V = Vowel - AEIOU
C = Consonant - BCDFG...

_Ce Rule - If a verb ends in consonant and 'e' drop the 'e' before adding 'ing.'

  • smile -> smiling
  • choke ->
  • damage ->
  • cycle ->
  • see ->
  • move ->
  • have ->

Note: "see" ends in 'e' but there is not a consonant immediately before the 'e' so just add 'ing'

_VC Rule - This is sometimes called the CVC rule. If a word ends with only one vowel followed by a consonant we usually double the consonant.

There are a few exceptions such as words that end in 'W', 'X', 'Y' and longer words where the emphasis is not on the final syllable. Remember -> remembering. These longer words often end in 'ER'.

  • sit-> sitting
  • nap ->
  • rob ->
  • forget ->
  • number ->
  • permit ->
  • visit ->
  • mix ->
  • play ->

___VVC or _CC Rule - You can think of this as the "other word" rule. If a word doesn't follow the _CVC or _Ce rule just add 'ing.'

  • clean -> cleaning
  • dial ->
  • call ->
  • cheer ->
  • blush ->
  • bomb ->

Exceptions

  • lie -> lying
  • die -> dying
  • See grammar.cl for a few more rules
Rule 1 - choking, damaging, cycling, seeing, moving, having
Rule 2 - napping, robbing, forgetting, numbering, permitting, visiting, mixing, playing
Rule 3 / Others - dialing, calling, cheering, blushing, bombing

More Practice
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